Monday, August 5, 2019
Water Quality Study of the Semenyih River
Water Quality Study of the Semenyih River Semenyih River is chosen as a sampling site in this study also this river is of particular importance in the study of surface water pollution because effluents from industries, mining, municipal sewage, agricultural and urban run-off are discharged into it bringing about considerable change in the water quality. In addition that, Semenyih River is one of the most important rivers in Selangor because of its importance as resource of water, fishing, and for recreation. B Present Status of the Subject Water is an essential requirement of human and industrial developments and it is one the most delicate part of the environment (Das and Acharya, 2003). In the last few decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the demand for freshwater due to rapid growth of population and the accelerated pace of industrialization (Ramakrishnaiah et al. 2009). Assessment of the quantity and quality of water resources is important in hydro environment. The physical and biological properties of water resources are driven by numerous environmental variables such as climate , water waste effluent (Creek 1999).Water quality indices are intended to provide a simple and understandable tool for managers and decision makers on the quality and possible uses of a given water body. Basically, a (INWQS) attempts to provide a mechanism for presenting a cumulatively derived, numerical expression defining a certain level of water quality (Miller et al.1986). The water quality trends clearly show that the majo rity of water quality parameters were high during wet season compared to dry season(Muhd.Barzani et al. 2008). Anthropogenic activities result in significantly decrease of surface water quality of aquatic systems in watersheds (May et al. 2006). Rivers in a watershed play a major role in assimilating or carrying off municipal and industrial wastewater and runoff from agricultural land. River inflows contribute main pollutants to most rivers in a watershed, thereby tending to induce serious ecological and sanitary problems. On the other hand, rivers constitute the main water resources for domestic, industrial, and irrigation purposes in a watershed. Thus it is imperative to prevent and control river pollution and to have reliable information on the quality of water for effective management. Generally, water-related environmental quality is in bad condition due to a great deal of waste, excessive reclamation, over-fishing, and frequent petroleum spills (Chen et al. 2003). The water quality of rivers is characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity in space and time, due to the variety of land cover around them. This often makes it difficult to identify water conditions and pollution sources, which is necessary for effective pollution control and water resource management (Kunwar et al. 2005). Malaysia Department of Environment (DOE) has stated that agriculture and livestock plays a main role in contributing river water pollution among other polluter. Livestock wastewater contains high concentration of organic and inorganic nitrogen compound, pathogenic bacteria and high concentration of ammonia-nitrogen. In addition, animals waste have been well documented to cause severe environmental damage in rivers which nutrient rich waste runoff will reach surface water, where it depletes oxygen and increase the algae production. Beside serious environmental problem, animal waste also may become a source of various diseases such as infectious worm larvae hatched from the worm eggs passed out with the feces; contamination encrusted with organic matter is an ideal breeding ground of harmful bacteria. (Anon 2001). In Malaysia, the riverine ecosystem is of particular interest since river water provides about 98% of the countrys water requirements (Azhar 2000). Therefore, contamination of river waters poses a serious health risk to the public. The monitoring of river water quality is under the responsibility of the Department of Environment Malaysia (DOE 1998). According to Muhamad Barzani et al (2005), Semenyih River showed increase in pollution levels due to human activities which is associated with urbanization, industrialization, agriculture and mining activities. Researchers studied the water quality in the Semenyih River Basin based on many parameters such as BOD, COD, DO, NH3-N, TSS,TDS and others, they stated that the range of deterioration in water quality in the river varied depending on the percentage of change in land-use. So the land -use activities within the basin must be carefully planned and controlled for protect the water resource and quality status. C The Strength and Significance of the Research The significance of this research is to provide some water quality data based on the degree of contamination of the Semenyih River. The strength of this research lies in its specific focus on creation water management study based on INWQS, that can be used as reference to other researchers who is interested in knowing Semenyih River and for the people to be attentive for the health situations. In addition, this research will be benefit for researchers particularly who want to know information about the river. D References Anon. 2001. Water Effluent From Pig Farms In Sabah-A Preliminary Investigation Of The Key Environmental Issue (Unpublished). State Environmental Conservation Department, Sabah. APHA. 1998. Standard methods for the examination of waterwaste 20th ed, America Public Health Association, Washington, DC. Azhar, M.G. 2000. Managing Malaysian Water Resources Development Special Bulletin on Issues of Citizens Health 2000. Corporate Development, Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia, pp: 40-58. Chen, Y .W., Fan, C.X., Katrin,T., et al. 2003. Changes of nutrients and phytoplankton chlorophyll-a in a large shallow lake, Taihu, China: an 8-year investigation. Hydrobiologia,506: 273-279. Creeks.1999.promoting watershed awareness, http://www.aoinstitute.org/sausal.accessed April21,1999. Das, J., Acharya, B.C. 2003. Hydrology and assessment of lotic water quality in Cuttack city, India. Water, Air, Soil Pollut., 150: 163-175. DOE Department of Environment. 1998. Malaysia Environment Quality Report 1998. Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Kunwar, P.S., Amrita, M., Sarita,S. 2005. Water quality assessment and apportionment of pollution sources of Gomti River(India) using multivariate statistical techniques, 538: 355-374. May, A.M., Mutasem, E., Mark, D. S., et al. 2006. Factors influencing development of management strategies for the Abou Ali River in Lebanon. Sci Total Environ, 362: 15-30. Miller,W.W.,Joung, H.M.,Mahannah,C.N.,Garrett.J.R.1986.Identification of water quality differenees in Nevada through index application. J .Environment Quality 15,265-272. Muhd.Barzani Gasim.2008.Water Quality of Several Feeder Rivers between Two Seasons in Tasik Chini ,Pahang .Sains Mal .313-321. Muhd.Barzani,. Ismail, B. S.,Wan, N. A., Muhammad,I.Y,.Marlia,M.H.2005.Water Quality assessment of the Semenyih River basin langor, Malaysia. Jurnal Biosains, 16(1)-95. Nives,S.G.1999.Water Quality Evaluation by Index in Dalmatla, Institute Split,Vukovarska46, 21000Split,Croatia. Okeke, C.O., Igboanua, A.H. 2003. Characteristics and quality assessment of surface water and groundwater recourses of Akwa Town, Southeast, Nigeria. J. Niger. Assoc. Hydrol. Geol., 14: 71-77. Ramakrishnaiah, C.R., Sadashivalah, C. 2009. Assessment of water quality index for the groundwater in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State. Indian J. Chem., 6: 523-530. IV RESEARCH APPROACH A Research Methodology This research will be carried out in six stages ,as follows: Stage 1: Literature Review This stage involves a literature review on the status study of water quality in Semenyih River _ level of pollution, spreading, estimation, and the reasons of contamination. Because with the continuous increase of population, the pollutant factors will become increasing. Stage 2: Recognisance survey Based on findings in Stage1, a recognisance survey will be carried out to determine the site of sample stations. The selection will take into consideration the locations that samples will collect from them in Semenyih River. Stage 3: Field work Field work will be carried out at the selected site in Stage 2. Activities will be as the following: the river will be divided into seven stations. In each station two samples will be collected. Water samples will be collected in clean bottles and the samples will be kept in iced store and will be processed at the lab, while the BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand)samples must be collected in black and dark bottles, light can not penetrate it. The following parameters are in-situ parameters that will be measured in the field work. PH. Conductivity. DO (Dissolved Oxygen). Temperature TDS(Total dissolved solids) All these parameters will be carried out in-situ and the equipment must be Calibrated before taking any measurements. Stage 4: Laboratory / Analytical work The following water quality parameters such as (BOD, NO3, NH3-N, PO4, SO4, and E.coli) would be analyzed in the laboratory .all analysis will perform in accordance with standard methods and will conduct within allowable holding times. a- BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand): BOD5 Measures the amount of oxygen used by bacteria and other microorganisms during a five -days period. Water quality samples will be stored in two black bottles .dissolved oxygen in the first bottles will measure in-situ with DO meter and the reading will be recorded as DO1. Second samples will be kept at 20Ã °C for five days , dissolved oxygen will measure again as DO5.BOD will be determined from the difference between DO1 and DO5. b- NO3 (Nitrate):Cadmium Reduction Method will use for measurement of nitrate parameter. Fifteen ml water sample will put into measuring cylinder. NitraVer 6 nitrate Reagent Powder Pillow will be added and shaken for three minutes. Then, the solution will be allowed to settle for two minutes. Then, 10 ml water samples will put into cell and added with NitriteVer 3 Nitrite Regent Powder Pillow. Sample cell will recap and shake for 30 seconds. Samples will be analyzed by spectrophotometer HACH 500 with program 351N ,Nitare LR. Ten ml of water will use sample as a blank. c- NH3-N (ammonia nitrogen):Nessler Method will be used for ammonia nitrogen measurement. Water samples (25 ml) and 25 ml deionized water will put in two cylinders and three drops of mineral stabilizer will be added into each cylinder. The cylinders will shake for one minute. Then, three drops of Polyvinyl Alcohol Dispersing Agent will add to the solution. The solution will shake and 1ml of reagent Nessler (K2HgI4) will add and shake again for one minute. All solution will be put into sample cell and analyzed by spectrophotometer HACH DR 500 which is program 380 N, Ammonia, Ness will be selected. Deionized water will use as blank (HACH 2003). d- PO4 (Phosphate): Acid Ascorbic (Phos Ve r 3) Methods will use for measurement of phosphate . Ten ml water sample will be put into cell sample and added with Phos Ver 3 Powder Pillow and shaken for two minutes. Samples will be analyzed by spectrophotometer HACH 500 with program 490 P React, PV. Water sample without treatment will use as a blank. e-SO4 (Sulphate): Sulfa Ver 4 Method will use for sulphate measurement. Ten ml water sample will be put into cell sample and added with Sulfa Ver 4 Powder Pillow and shaken for five minutes. Spectrophotometer HACH DR 500 will use for analysis the sample by program 680 Sulfate. water sample without treatment will use as a blank. . f- Faecal coliform (E. coli) : the membrane filtration technique will be used for the coliforms group, including fecal coliforms. After 24 hours of collection , water samples (10ml)will serially dilute with 90 ml phosphate saline buffer. This method consists of drawing a measured volume of water through a filter membrane fine enough to trap the bacteria, and placing of filter on a growth medium (chromocult coliform agar) in a petri dish. The 0.45Ã µm nitro-cellulose membrane will use. After filtration and placing thefilter membrane on the cultural medium. The plates will incubate for 24 hours at 37Ã °C. The number of colonies growth at the membrane will be counted and recorded as the colony forming units(CFU) Step-by-step procedures: (1) Collect the sample and make any necessary dilutions. (2) Select the appropriate nutrient or culture medium. Dispense the broth into a sterile Petri dish, evenly saturating the absorbent pad.(3)Flame the Forceps, and remove the membrane from the sterile package. (4) Place the membrane filter into the funnel assembly.(5) Flame the pouring lip of the sample container and pour the sample into the funnel.(6) Turn on the vacuum and allow the sample to draw completely through the filter.(7) Rinse funnel with sterile buffered water. Turn on vacuum and allow the liquid to draw completely through the filter.(8) Flame the forceps and remove the membrane filter from the funnel.(9) Place the membrane filter into the prepared Petri dish.(10) Incubate at the proper temperature and for the appropriate time period.(11) Count the colonies under 10 15 X magnification. (12) Confirm the colonies and report the results. Stage 5: Data compilation and interpretation Data will be compiled as follows: (a) Location of site, (b) Quantity of pollution and expansion in the river, (c) Evaluation of water quality in the river, (d) The reasons of contamination, (e) data will use a suitable statistical analysis programme to process and analyse. Stage 6: Report writing and submission It is anticipated that the project will comprise the following chapters: (a) Introduction, (b) Objectives and rationales of the study, (c) Overview, (d) Methodology and study area description, (e) analysis and discussion of results (f) Conclusion and recommendation for further work. B Research Activities The research activities covering the two-semester period of study are as follows: 1. Literature review (July 2010- October2010) A literature review on the status study of water quality at Semenyih River- level of pollution, spreading, estimation, and the reasons of contamination. Because with the continuous increase of population around the river, the pollutant factors will become increasing. 2. Recognisance survey (July 2010) Based on the literature review, a recognisance survey will be carried out to determine the site of sample stations. The selection will take into consideration the locations that samples will collect from them in Semenyih River. 3. Field work (July and November2010) Field work will be carried out at the selected after the recognisance survey. Activities include: The river will be divided into seven stations. In each station two samples will be collected. Water samples will be collected in clean bottles and the samples will be kept in iced store and will be processed at the lab, while the BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand) samples must be collected in black and dark bottles, light can not penetrate it. The following parameters will be measured in the field work.(1)PH, (2)TDS, (3) Conductivity, (4) DO (Dissolved Oxygen), (5)Temperature. 4. Laboratory / Analytical work (August2010 and December2010) This part constitutes the following activities: (a) The following water quality parameters such as (BOD, NO3, NH3-N, PO4, SO4, E.coli) would be analyzed in the laboratory .all analyses will perform in accordance with standard methods and will conduct within allowable holding times. (a) BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand): BOD5 Measures the amount of oxygen used by bacteria and other microorganisms during a five-days period, (b) NO3 (Nitrate): Cadmium Reduction Method will use for measurement of nitrate parameter, (c) NH3-N (ammonia nitrogen):Nessler Method will be used for ammonia nitrogen measurement, (d) PO4 (Phosphate): Acid Ascorbic (Phos Ve r 3) Methods will use for measurement of phosphate. (e) SO4 (Sulphate): Sulfa Ver 4 Method will use for sulphate measurement (i) Fecal coliform (E. coli) : the membrane filtration technique will be used for the coliforms group, including fecal coliforms. 5. Data compilation and interpretation (December 2010- February 2011) Data will be compiled as follows: (a) Location of site, (b) Quantity of pollution and expansion in the river, (c) Evaluation of water quality in the river, (d) The reasons of contamination, (e) data will use a suitable statistical analysis programme to process and analyse. 6. Report writing and submission (February April 2011) It is anticipated that the project will comprise the following chapters: (a) Introduction, (b) Objectives and rationales of the study, (c) Overview (d) Methodology and study area description, (e) analysis and discussion of results (f) Conclusion and recommendation for further work. C Key Milestones of the Research The progress of the research will be monitored through three key milestones, as follows: August 2010 Completion of major field work, samples are ready to be analysed. March2011 Completion of major laboratory and analytical work, data are ready for interpretation. May 2011 Submission of thesis. The research activities are shown in Appendix. D Risks of the Research Risks Degree of Risks Effect of weather on the sampling programme very Low (Time-related risk) Shortage of time low V BENEFITS OF THE RESEARCH It is anticipated that the findings of this research will benefit the following sectors: Knowledge From this study we will know pollution status at Rompin River and the sources that caused this pollution. In the future, the findings for this research may be benefit for people who live on the two sides of the river. Public and Private Sectors This study could be one of the components to built management control methods that may be more effective and economic.